Eugenics. The Darker Side of Sweden.
In August of 1904, the University of Lund gave its first summer lecture. The topic was whether or not the Germanic tribes had originated in Skåne, the southernmost province of Sweden, where Lund had been founded about 990, the university itself dating back to the 1600s. Open to the public, the lecture drew students and burghers both.
That summer, at Skåne estates, agricultural workers had gone on strike. Skåne was known for its fertile soil, the quality of its wheat considered superior and therefore much in demand abroad. In the late 1800s, after the less expensive American wheat began to crowd the markets, many Skåne estates had switched from wheat to sugar beets, painting the landscape, in the words of August Strindberg, “not yellow but an unpleasant copper green.” Now, with the strikes, the entire beet harvest was at risk.
The newspapers had reported on the arrival of Galicians, men and women from Eastern Europe, hired to replace the striking Swedish agricultural workers. “About the time when the service in the Maria church came to an end, an unusual group of travelers could be seen disembarking the Helsingborg steamer,” wrote Arbetet, a newspaper published by the Social Democrats. “Short in stature, with stony faces, heavy bundles on their backs, the strangers stepped ashore, hurried on by men with cudgels. Galicians for the beet fields, bedraggled, impassive but with darting eyes, looking for directions like a herd of cattle, they represented the very lowest class of workers, asking no more than a few potatoes a day.”
Still, on the day of the lecture, the town of Lund seemed as idyllic as ever, the streets narrow and cobbled, the walls of the old houses half-timbered, or made of willow twigs and clay. Rusty springs squeaked when a horse-drawn wagon rumbled past, the tar on top of the wooden fences bubbled from the midday heat, and gossip mirrors flashed, mounted outside the windows at such an angle that the house inhabitants could watch all passers-by, while they themselves remained unseen.
The lecture was held at Akademiska föreningen, a large red-brick building, no more than fifty years old, but resembling a medieval castle, with pinnacles and embattled towers, dreamed up by an architect who greatly admired the past. In the lecture hall, all seats were taken.
After the audience sang the national anthem, Professor Axel Koch, a noted linguist, took the podium. Like most scientists, he believed that Germanic tribes had inhabited Skåne during the Stone Age. He noted that it was also commonly held that a new migration had taken place during the Bronze Age, when burial customs changed, and people began to burn their dead.
Here, however, his reasoning took an unexpected turn. The custom of burning had been slow to take hold. “A change brought on by a mass invasion would have been sudden and profound. Such, for example, was the case in England, where there is a distinct difference between Celtic and Anglo-Saxon graves. In Sweden we continue to find unburned remains not just in graves from the Stone Age but also in those from the Bronze Age, which leads us to believe that the change in burial customs was not caused by a new people displacing the old but rather by a growing contact with the outside world through travel and trade.”
Throughout the afternoon, culling from archeology, history, and linguistics, Koch argued his case. He referred to Gustaf Retzius, an anthropologist, who four years earlier had published Crania Suecica Antiqua, which dealt with the form of the Swedish skull. Most skulls dug from ancient Swedish graves were so-called long skulls, associated with a tall, blond, and blue-eyed race, physical attributes shared by many of those who filled the lecture hall that day. Short skulls, of which only a limited number was said to have been found, were thought to belong to a darker, inferior race of hunters and gatherers, possibly the ancestors of the Sami and the Finns. Between 1897 and 1898, Retzius and his team had also measured the skulls of 45,000 Swedish conscripts, concluding that 87% were long skulls, 75% were blond, and close to 67% had light-colored eyes, all characteristics of the Germanic race.
“Therefore,” Koch concluded, “we have reason to believe that we are the proud descendants of the same people who inhabited these parts 4,000 years ago. Unlike the rest of Europe, our habitat has, in a measure, remained intact. The Romans called it Scandinavia, a term we encounter in many tales of migration, where it appears to refer specifically to the southernmost tip of Sweden, the land we now call Skåne.”
That fall, as the beet harvest began, the Galicians knelt in the fields, rows and rows of them, their backs bent, the fog so thick that they could barely see each other, the sound of breathing the sole reassurance that they were not alone. Day after day, week after week, their fingers numb from the cold, they strained and pulled, the clay-laden soil sucking back the beets before it released them, the horses heaving as the wagon wheels sank even deeper into the mud. Meanwhile, blacklisted for daring to strike, Swedish workers were evicted, entire families, all of whom were tied to the farms and the estates where they labored in return for housing and rations of potatoes and grain and milk. The constable’s coach was a common sight, accompanied by policemen on horseback. So far, violence had not erupted, but no one knew what might happen next. Strikes among industrial workers were not unheard of, but this was different, affecting the livestock too, with alarming reports about cows not being milked, slaughtered as the last resort.
The strike was eventually called off, but in the years to come, Galicians would return, not as strike breakers but as guest workers for the harvest. Gustaf Retzius continued his measurings, reasserting the superiority of the Germanic race, warning against what was called an “unchecked mixture of blood.” In among the charts and statistics crept the belief that the descendants of the Germanic race were “natural aristocrats,” that the difference in race also corresponded to a difference in worth.
“We must never forget that the greatest opulence a country possesses is its own people, provided they are of a good stock,” wrote Herman Lundborg, another race hygienist, in 1921. “We Swedes are, in this respect, fortunately situated. We should therefore not shun any sacrifice, to cherish and augment the biological inheritance, which a generous nature has bestowed on us. It is inadvisable to feel too secure in the belief that this vigorous source is inexhaustible. It can decrease, or even wholly disappear, if we do not understand how to economize sufficiently.” In 1922 Lundborg became the head of the Swedish Institute for Racial Biology, the first of its kind to be run by a national government, with the underlying notion that the Mendelian laws must also apply to man, and that we should breed people the same way we breed animals and plants, sterilizing those unlikely to improve the species. The institute continued to exist until 1958, when it was cleansed of eugenics and renamed.
But that day in Lund, as the people left the lecture hall, few seemed concerned by what they just had heard. In attic rooms, overlooking chimneys and green copper roofs, students loosened their collars, drank icy punsch, debated Nietzsche and the Vienna Moderne. In bourgeoise homes, somber with potted ficuses and heavy oak, soft hands stroked downy cheeks, as women read night-time stories to their children and checked under the beds for trolls. Across town, at the Grand Hotel, the only four-story building in Lund, patres familias patted each other’s backs and circled the smörgåsbord, the parquet floor creaking under their weight, while in the kitchen the cooks put the finishing touches to the turtle soup and the Goose á la Normande.
For such is the nature of science run amok. It walks among us, cloaks itself in respectability, steps into the gutter as we pass. But then it shows its face.
Photograph of Gustaf Retzius and a Sami man (1905).
by Birgitta Hjalmarson
The End of Christmas.
The girl’s breath misted the glass as she pressed her nose against the windowpane and looked out at the street. An eerie stillness ruled out there, no movement seen, other than snowflakes falling slowly from a black evening sky. In front of the house, a solitary lamp post shed a small circle of light. The father and the boy had shoveled the garden path free of snow, all the way from the white wooden gate to the front door.
In this town, on the west coast of Sweden, winter had come early that year. The war had ended less than a decade earlier. Memories of the camps already seemed distant, the guilt assuaged, for all the claims of ignorance of something that should have been known. But the girl and the boy knew nothing of that, especially not on an evening like this, the house warm and snug, the oil furnace humming in the cellar, the Christmas creche on display in the fireplace, the wise men in their richly colored robes, the ceramic ox looking down on the infant in the manger. Out in the bicycle shed, the hedgehog had bedded down for the winter, underneath a pile of twigs and leaves, its breathing suspended, its torpor all but complete.
From the sofa in the living room, the sister-in-law watched the wife. The sister-in-law came rarely to the house. She was a stranger to the children. Even the husband, her younger brother, had long since tried to understand who she was, or perhaps he understood it all too well, her desire for his wife, her need to see her, if only from a distance, and only once a year, as this evening in the living room, her mind taking note of the wife’s every gesture, her quietness and content, and yet that hint of strain, the skin below her eyes tinged with blue, and now the news, as the wife had whispered in her ear, even as they greeted each other in the hall, that she was expecting a third child.
The boy joined the girl at the window. He wore his new pullover sweater, an early Christmas gift. Early that morning, he and the father had gone to the country, the boy in the back seat of the Volvo, as they traveled along winding forest roads, with glimpses of the frozen river against the gray winter light. At the farmhouse, the grandmother had been waiting, a devout woman in black, made even more devout by the death of her husband years before the war. A horse dealer, he had lived on too grand a scale in a place where most of the forest had already been felled, leaving the ground scorched and too stony for crops. No one, not even the grandmother, had been willing to admit that his death had been a suicide. Rather, it was blamed on a sudden dizziness, which must have struck as he crossed the old stone bridge, his body floating ashore a couple of miles to the south.
While the grandmother stayed behind, the boy and the father had walked out into the forest, following the tracks in the snow, the boy carrying his grandfather’s rifle. The fox had waited for them, or so it seemed to the boy, at the far end of a meadow, the boughs of the fir trees weighed down by snow. As the father guided him, the boy raised the rifle to his shoulder, his finger on the trigger. The fox looked straight at them, as if in anticipation of what the boy would do next. Blood hammering in his ears, gun oil stinging his nostrils, all the boy could think of was the stillness of the fox, the frozen landscape around them, and the father wanting him to shoot. Just then, the fox turned and loped back in among the trees, and the boy lowered the rifle.
On their return to town, the boy and the father had found the Christmas tree toppled by the cat, ornaments scattered all over, the cat on the windowsill licking its paws. Order had been restored, the Christmas star rewired to the top of the tree, the tree itself secured to the wall, and the shards of the broken glass balls, covered with fake frost, swept off the floor. At last, after hiding in his room, the boy had come out to light the candles in the tree, not electric, as in the houses of his friends, but real, the candleholders made of brass with drip pans for the melting wax. He bowed before the aunt and joined the girl at the window, who kept wiping the mist off the glass. He was not at all sure that Santa Claus would come, especially not since the father was still in the house. In the past, the father had always disappeared just before Santa Claus arrived. Now, looking at his father converse with the aunt, the boy felt sorry for his sister, who clung to the notion that Santa Claus was no less real than the grandmother’s God.
The wife was still in the kitchen, preparing the sauce for the lutfisk, rich enough to conceal the blandness of the cod. The afternoon had grated on her nerves, and she had reached for one of those pills she kept hidden in the corner of the cabinet, behind the crystal glasses. She could hear her husband’s voice from the living room. A month earlier, her sister-in-law had helped her with a dress that needed to be let out. It was only natural that the wife should have asked her, the sister-in-law being a seamstress with clients coming to see her as far as from Berlin. In the bright atelier, the sister-in-law had bent at her side, one knee against the floor, as she pinned the dress around her waist, the porcelain pin heads like pricks of blood. Even now, the wife could feel the hands of her sister-in-law resting on her hips, longer than necessary, long enough for the wife to respond, as if a small animal had stirred inside her womb. That night, unable to forget, she had turned away from her husband in shame. The following morning, a messenger delivered the dress with a note from the sister-in-law, embossed in blue and gold, with hopes that the dress would now be a better fit.
To this day, the wife could see the husband enter the shop where she used to work, his collar raised, his coat of the latest cut. He had asked to taste almost every cheese in sight, buying two or three, as the other customers waited in line, the matrons smiling behind his back. When she married him, she had already been pregnant with the boy. Crushing his dreams to become an architect, she expected him to provide for her in style, all those dinners and bridge parties, the maids in starched aprons and caps. Once he became a successful businessman, he took her to Milan and Paris, the two of them sitting in their own loge at the opera house or walking hand-in-hand along the Seine. Even now, after all these years of living in this small Swedish town, when he thought she was asleep, he would leave their bed for the room in the attic. Here, when cleaning, she would see his blueprints spread on the drawing board, his pencils sharpened and lined up, his compass and triangles laid out the way one might set the table for a long-lost friend, someone who might still return, all those dreams stashed away, like her pills.
Now, as the wife entered the living room, she found her sister-in-law talking to the husband, the cat purring in his lap. Both children were at the window, looking out. This year, aware of the boy’s suspicions, she and her husband had agreed to hire a Santa Claus. Other parents in the neighborhood had asked to join, and an advertisement had been answered. The man, named Linder, was given not just the addresses but also the names of the children, their grades at school and the subjects in need of improvement. He should already be making his way down the street, sacks of presents waiting for him in garages and cellars, a glass of snaps offered him in each house, strong enough to warm his insides. The wife did not know this man, nor did her husband. According to the agency, he lived east of the river. People there had little to do with the people who lived in the villas to the west, but the agency had presented him as a retired engineer, very respectable, his own son long since grown.
Approaching the house, Linder saw the children’s faces in the window, noses pressed against the glass. His mask had holes cut for his mouth and eyes. Rubber bands attached his cotton beard to his face and dug into the skin behind his ears. He did not need the money, but he was willing to suffer it all, as long as he did not have to be alone on this one night, when once, underneath the stars, the shepherds heard the angels sing, “Glory to God on high!” Before he knocked on the front door, he stomped the snow off his boots, loud enough to make sure the children heard him. The husband and the wife shook his hand, as did the girl and the boy, curtsying and bowing, neither one brave enough to look him in the eyes. The woman, who introduced herself as the sister-in-law, remained seated, while the cat hissed at him and hid under her chair. He had seen women like that in the other houses too, widows and maiden aunts, their relatives taking turns in having them over for the holidays, as inconvenient as it was, and in this particular case clearly putting added pressure on the wife, whose hand had been cold and wet in his, before she quickly took it back.
Linder sat on a chair in the middle of the room. He emptied his glass of snaps, uttered a few Ho-Ho-Ho’s, pulled the presents out of the sack, and read out the names on the tags. When still in his thirties, he had come down from the north, building railroads through the wilderness, living in barracks with the other men, carousing and fighting, until a young woman from one of the villages stood at the barrack door, wanting to save him, her face tapered and pale. She had a child by a man, whose name she never knew. The boy, she said, needed a father, and so a deal was struck. She had been pliable, adjusting to his ways to please him, quoting from the Scriptures, and calling him a decent man. In the end she had bent too much, and she broke right under him, something erupting inside her; the doctors were unable to save her, or even explain what had gone wrong.
After the funeral, he moved with the boy to this town, where the railroad company paid him handsomely and called him an engineer. When Germany occupied Norway, the Swedish government allowed German trains to travel through Sweden to transport wounded soldiers back to their own country. He stood on the platform, as did many of the other townspeople, watching the trains roll by, the soldiers leaning out the windows to wave. Several newspapers published articles in protest, claiming that the trains carried not just wounded soldiers but also Swedish iron to be forged into guns. The townspeople jeered and shook their fists, the air hot with hatred, but one man – he recognized the husband, who now stood behind his seated wife, cupping his pipe, making sure his children behaved — had raised his right arm in salute, palm down.
The distribution of presents over, the mood in the room was one of comfort and warmth, all meant to convince the children that they were somehow in good hands. For a moment Linder too felt drawn in, but only until he met the stare of the cat, still crouching under the older woman’s chair, its pupils opening and closing, yellow slits against black. At the husband’s insistence, he accepted a second glass of snaps. It was then that the girl climbed up on his knee, her stockings white and crumpled at her feet. Someone ought to have stopped her, but no one did. She was too close to him, her scent of vanilla and milk, her slight body trusting his. He heard himself burst into song, his voice like the cranking of a rusty shaft, raucous words about lonely men around a fire, miles and miles of forest to the nearest town, the curses and profanities shielding them from the dark, but the girl still leaned against his chest, until he wrenched her away and the wife rushed in to gather her up. The girl was crying now, not loud, more a drawn-out sob, as if she had glimpsed the hunger in his eyes and made it hers.
From the window, the boy and the girl watched their father walk Santa Claus down the shoveled garden path, through the gate and out into the street. Stopping under the lamp post, the father handed Santa Claus an envelope, slapped him on the back, and returned to the house. The snow had stopped falling now. Pressing her cheek to the misty glass, the girl looked up at the stars. She told the boy she could see the star of Bethlehem leading Santa Claus on his way, his red hood bobbing and disappearing in the night. The boy put his arm around her shoulders and told her about the fox, all that wood stacked in front of their grandmother’s house, enough to take her through the winter, the empty stalls in the stable, halters hanging from iron hooks, the wood nicked from kicking hooves. He told her he was all she had.
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